Quote of the Day
The Oversimplification, The Cherry Pick, The Butter-up Undercut, The Demonizer, The Blame the Blogger, The Ridicule and Dismiss, The Literal Nitpick, The Credit Snatch, The Certain Uncertainty, The Blind Eye to Follow-Up, The Lost in Translation, The Straight-Up Fabrication.
— David Levitan (author of the book Not a Scientist), his categorization of the methods politicians use to obfuscate science. I have seen our politicians use every method he described. Politicians generally begin their attack on science with the phrase "I am not a scientist but …"
The controversial senate candidacy of Roy Moore has resulted in some discussion of how the US Senate would respond if he won the election. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has mentioned the possibility of expulsion. I could not recall hearing of anyone being expelled from the Senate recently, so I decided to grab some data from the Senate web site and summarize it here.
I used Power Query to download and process the data from the Senate website. Figure 2 shows my summary of all expelled Senators. Only 15 senators have been expelled, with 14 being expelled for their participation in the Confederacy. The last senator to be expelled was in 1862.
There are other ways the US Senate can discipline its members – actions like censure, condemnation, and denunciation. Near as I can tell, people distinguish condemnation and denunciation from censure, but there really is no difference (e.g. discussion of McCarthy). Figure 3 show the list of senators subjected to forms of discipline other than expulsion. I also included those senators who resigned or whose terms ended before their disciplinary reviews were completed. The last senator to resign while undergoing disciplinary review was Robert Packwood back in 1995.
For those who are interested, my workbook is here.