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Category Archives: Electronics
I have been sitting in a meeting on a high power version of Power over Ethernet (PoE) known as IEEE 802.3bt. It supports 90 W of output power with a guarantee of 71 W at the load. During the talk, Figure 1 was discussed (my version of the chart). When I am given some mathematical information, I like to experiment with it to see if I understand what I am being told. Continue reading
One of the most common computation tasks that my customers face is estimating battery capacity based on the battery's temperature and discharge current. Figure 1 shows a example of the capacity curves for a typical lead-acid battery. Ten years ago, I chose to implement this function with an Excel spreadsheet that used a polynomial approximation for this function. An engineer today asked me to explain how my Excel implementation works, and I felt this would be a good topic for a post. This approach is implemented using SUMPRODUCT – no helper cells were required. Continue reading
Quote of the Day If you don't stick to your values when they are being tested, they're not values; they're hobbies. — Jon Stewart Introduction I received a circuit design question from a reader who was asking how to design … Continue reading
Many electronic systems are required to generate an alarm when they detect their power failing – the alarm is referred to as a "dying gasp". These systems are required to generate a dying gasp alarm when their input voltage drops below a specified level. Continue reading
I have been designing circuits since I was a boy, and my passion for circuits has only grown over time. My home designs focus on sensor interfaces that I hook up to the Internet using Raspberry Pie and Arduino digital interfaces. These open-source HW interfaces make it possible to create incredibly powerful designs at home. Continue reading
Because I have had to deal with lightning in all sorts of contexts (e.g. military equipment, commercial hardware, consumer products), I have developed an enormous respect for the power of lightning (Figure 1). Because of this respect, I have worked to ensure that my own home has excellent lightning protection, including a sophisticated ground system. Even with all my precautions, last weekend lightning struck near my home and caused my garage door to open – letting rain into the garage, and my garage door opener to become unresponsive. Fortunately, I just had to cycle power again on the garage door opener and it started to work. Continue reading
I was asked this morning about how to create a 3D plot in Mathcad that shows a surface, two lines on the surface, and marks the point of intersection of the two lines (Figure 1). It just so happens that I have been looking at the amount of current that a PCB trace of a given area can carry for a given temperature rise above ambient. While the curve itself is a bit boring and viewing it in 3D does not add any value, this example does illustrate the procedure for generating this type of plot. Continue reading
The popularity of Power Over Ethernet (PoE) has proven that customers find value in using a single cable for both data and power distribution. Unfortunately, copper-based Cat 5e/6 cable is limited to a 100 meters because of data transmission issues. To circumvent this limit, some equipment vendors are using composite fiber/copper cables – a single cable that contains fiber for data and large gauge copper wire for power distribution (Figure 1). Continue reading
I received an email today asking me about the phone line impedance differences between New Zealand (Figure 1) and Australia. This is an easy question to answer, and I wrote up a quick Mathcad worksheet to perform the calculation. Continue reading
I have an existing circuit for which I need to modify the front-end gain. The gain is provided by an LT1101, which is a common instrumentation amplifier. This part is normally used with one of its two fixed gain settings (10x, 100x). As commonly happens, I need to find a way to resolve an issue without making major changes to a circuit. The designers of the LT1101 provided you a way to modify the amplifiers gain by adding two resistors to the circuit. Figure 1 shows the modified circuit, with the added resistors marked with red ovals and labeled Rx. Continue reading